Viking Culture    Hearth    Timeline    Healers Hearth    Armoury


Viking Age 793AD – 1066AD


793AD - First recorded raid on our shores at Lindisfarne Abbey on the Northumberland coast

795AD - Norse raids on Ireland begin.

800 – 810AD - Reign of King Godfrid of Denmark

802AD - Iona monastery was burnt down.

806AD - 68 monks were killed and the rest to Kells in County Meath, and was thus recorded in the book of Kells. Scottish and Irish monasteries were abandoned by monks who fled to Durham.

810AD - Death of Charlemagne.

810 – 827AD - Reign of King Harald Klak of Denmark

827 – 853AD - Reign of King Horik Godfredsson of Denmark

835AD - Danish raiders ally with the Cornish against the rule of King Ecgbehrt of Wessex.

850’s - By the mid ninth century the Vikings had eliminated the Picts in Scotland and declared it an independent Kingdom.

By the late ninth century King Cináed MacAlpin declared himself King of Northern England and Scotland.

840 – 870AD - Reign of King Halfdan the Black of Norway.

844 – 845AD - Norse raids on Moorish Spain begin.

850AD - Vikings started to over winter in England

851AD - First Norse raid on Wales recorded in the Welsh chronicles Annales Cambriae, Brut y Tywysogion and Brut y Saeson stating that a certain Cyngen or Cinnen died on the swords of "the Heathen".

852AD - The Swedish Rus become dominant among the Volga.

853 – 873AD - Reign of King Rorik of Denmark

860AD - The Norse discovery of Iceland.

860’sAD - Ragnar Loddbrok killed at York. The Rus found Novgorod and Kiev.

867AD - Vikings took over Southern Northumbria. Ragnar Hairy Breeks and his son Ivarr the boneless killed Æell King of Northumbria.

869AD - Ragnar and Ivarr killed Edmund of East Anglia.

870AD - Halfdan and Ubbi led the Danes against Wessex but settled for a truce later in that year.

870AD - The Settlement of Iceland begins.

870 - 945AD - Reign of King Harald Harfagra of Norway.

873 - 891AD - Kings Sigfred and Halfdan are co-rulers of Denmark.

874AD - Halfdan brother of Ivarr leads a conquest of Mercia.

878AD - Alfred the Great defeats Guthrum/Guthorm and forces the Viking forces to accept Christianity in return for English for settlement.

Harald Harfagra completes his conquest and unification of Norway and the Orkney Islands, many Norwegians flee to Iceland

890’sAD - Reign of King Helgi of Denmark, followed by Swedish rule of Denmark under King Olaf the Swede.

899AD - Alfred the Great died.

899 – 924AD - Alfred’s son Edward the Elder ruled

Edward with his sister Æthelflaed took the south of England from the Danes

910 – 990AD - Life of poet/warrior Egill Skallagrimsson.

912AD - Gongu-Hrolf and his men take lands in Normandy as vassals of the French king. Their descendants become the Normans.

920AD - Ulfljotr the Norwegian brings the Gulathing Law to Iceland, where it is used as a model upon which Icelandic Law is based.

922AD - Ibn-Fadlan, an Arab ambassador to the Scandinavian Rus along the Volga, writes his account of their customs, including a full description of a ship/cremation funeral.

929 – 939AD - Alfred’s grandson Æthelstan ruled.

930AD - First Althing held at Thingvellir in Iceland, establishment of the Icelandic Free State.

935 - 950AD - Reign of King Gorm the Old of Denmark.

946AD - Reign of King Hakon the Good of Norway

947AD - Start of reign of King Olafr Tryggvasson of Norway, Norway adopts Christianity.

950 – 983AD - Reign of King Haraldr Bluetooth of Denmark, Denmark adopts Christianity.

982AD - Eirikr inn Rauda (Eric the Red) discovers Greenland.

983AD - Start of reign of King Svein Forkbeard of Denmark.

986AD - Settlement of Greenland

1000AD - Iceland officially converts to Christianity, although heathen practice is still permitted in private.

Olafr Tryggvasson dies.

1000 – 1005AD - Leifr Eiriksson makes his voyages to Vinland (America), attempts made to settle there are prevented by opposition from skraelings (Native Americans).

1014AD - Ard-Righ Brian Boru defeats the Norse in Ireland at the battle of Clontarf, both Brian and Jarl Sigurdhr of Orkney are slain

1030AD - King Olaf the Saint is killed at Stiklestad.

1066AD - Haraldr Hardrada, king of Norway, is killed during an attempted invasion of England fighting against Harold Godwinsson, the English king.

Harold Godwinsson is killed at Hastings by the forces of Duke William (the Bastard) of Normandy.


End of Viking Age

RUNES - Paul Sykes


Fehu        f    The definition is described as cattle, which relates to material wealth and well-being. It is also related to

     primeval fire and is the rune used for the realm of Muspelheimr.

Uruz        u    It is the Norse word for the Wild Auroch, similar to a modern day Bison, it symbolises strength and

     vitality. With luck derived from the runes shape.

Thurisaz    T    Thorr’s rune, it means giant in Norse and thorn in Old English, it represents rapid and often dramatic

     changes and spiritual awakenings.

Ansuz       a    The rune of communication in all forms, but most especially from our intuition as this rune is the basis

     of the magical odhrerir.

Raidho      r    Known as the solar wheel, this rune represents travel through divisions of ordered time, and on the

     material plane travel in all its forms.

Kenaz       c      The rune of creativity and procreation, it is symbolised by the torch or campfire as controlled fire. As

     such the light attracts creatures to it.

Gyfu        g    This is Odhinn's rune and as such symbolises gifts and giving, and sacrifices made. Forming a kiss it is

     the rune of togetherness.

Wunjo       w    This rune represents the fire within, the true will and can be best described as harmony or joy. It is

     one of the four main solar runes.

Hagalaz     h    Rapid disruption, cleansing, wisdom from the past. Personal change due to impersonal circumstances.

     Connections to the past when wyrd is involved.

Nauthiz     n     Needfire, necessity, delays and constraints leading to future freedom, and strength of mind.

Isa            i      Stasis, delays, living in the present. Beauty, cooling of relationships, purifying of the self.

Jera           j    Year, harvest from the fields and of the self, fertility on all levels, fulfillment. Events occurring

     naturally not forced.

Eihwaz       I    Life and death, longevity, offensive rather than defensive protection. Spiritual awakening connected

     with past events.

Perthro       p    Mysteries of the Futhark, fate or wyrd, connected with the runes Hagalaz, Nauthiz and Isa in

     connection with the past, present and future, respectively. Feminine secrets and hidden knowledge.

Elhaz          z    Defensive protection, obscuring the truth. Spiritual awakening and seeing the whole.

Sowilo         s    Feminine nurturing influence, protective strength, success. Relative time during daylight hours

    and great importance at the summer solstice.

Tiwaz          t    Courage and fortitude, with a sense of justice. Victory against struggles. The male principle.

     Occasionally foolishness or deception.

Berkano       b   Hidden nature. Clearing away of unwanted forces. Fertility, pregnancy, birth, creating new beginnings

     or ideas. Deceit hidden by  a gloss.

Ehwaz           e   Duality, partnerships, hidden knowledge in the form of omens. Last journey, physical or symbolic


Mannaz        m   Social structure, inheritance, awakening of the self. Rationality of the moon. Harmony between

     individuals and groups.

Laguz           l    Feminine/masculine principle, with a range of emotions. To be one with the flow. Connections with

      birth. A personal or group cleansing effect.

Ingwaz      N   Fertility, the seed of transformation, femininity, pregnancy and birth. Transformative doorway leading

     to other realms of reality.

Othala          o   Inherited wealth, within a tribal or family unit. Enclosure holding everything one owns. Blinkered


Dagaz           d   New dawn, causing transformation and growth creating patterns for a brighter future. Completion of a


If you have problems with a font for the rune shapes then download the following TTF font. (runic.ttf)


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